Navigating the Organizational Maze: Creating Order and Balance

When it comes to publishing scientific research, organizing your manuscript effectively is crucial for conveying your findings and insights to the academic community. Your paper’s structure and organization enhance readability and contribute to the clarity and impact of your research. In this blog post, we explore the typical structure of a manuscript and provide guidance on creating an effective organizational plan. We will also discuss the significance of section headers and the role of balancing the word counts within each section.

Understanding the IMRD/C Structure

If you’ve delved into the realm of academic literature, you are likely familiar with the IMRD/C structure. This acronym represents the key sections of a research article: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion/Conclusion. Each section plays a distinct role in presenting your research and guiding readers through your arguments for the objectives, methodology, findings, and interpretation of your study.

Understanding the IMRD/C Structure

The image of an hourglass can be employed as a visual representation to illustrate the connections among the different sections of IMRD/C.

The hourglass analogy highlights the broad nature of the Introduction and Discussion/Conclusion sections in contrast to the specific focus of the middle sections, Methods and Results.


The introduction sets the stage for your research by broadly orienting your reader to the big picture, highlighting the significance of the problem you’re addressing, and providing context. It should introduce the research question, justify its relevance, and outline the objectives and hypotheses. We shared pointers for this section in last week’s post


In the methods section, you get more specific by explaining your study’s experimental design, data collection techniques, and procedures. Be precise by providing enough detail for replication. At the AWC, we often suggest that writers begin their manuscripts by explicating their methods. One strategy for getting started is to identify a model article in your target journal and use the headings/subheadings as a guide for what to write about in this section’s beginning, middle, and end. Not only does this help with organization, but also it helps you differentiate your work from others while also situating it in the territory.


Like the previous section, when we write about results, we stay focused and particular, often through the use of specific tables, graphs, or figures. Report data neutrally, organizing it logically and ensuring it aligns with your research questions. Use subheadings to divide different aspects of your results, improving readability and enabling readers to locate specific information quickly.


The discussion section allows you to interpret your results, compare them with previous research, and explain their implications. Address the research question and hypotheses while considering alternative explanations and limitations. Conclude with a concise summary of your findings and their broader implications for the field.

PRO TIP: Balance word count by dividing length requirement into sections

Journals usually provide an overall length requirement; however, that is often a vague goal that only provides guidance in the final stages of revision. By noticing how other published writers divide their sections and “weigh” them, we can find more concrete guidance about the length of each section (IMDR) and subsection. In other words, find a model article, copy/paste each section into a word processing program and calculate the word count to help ensure a balanced and coherent manuscript.

Organizing a research manuscript is crucial to effectively communicate your scientific research. Researchers can create well-structured, readable, and impactful manuscripts by understanding the IMRD/C structure, using section headers effectively, and adhering to length requirements. A well-organized and balanced paper enhances the reader’s experience and reflects the rigor and significance of your research.

About the Author

Academic coach, Academic Insight Lab, Kimberly Becker

Kimberly Becker, Ph.D.

Applied Linguist Specializing in Disciplinary Academic Writing

Kimberly is a lecturer in the English department at Iowa State University (ISU). She has a Ph.D. in Applied Linguistics and Technology (ISU, 2022) and an M.A. in Teaching English as a Second Language (Northern Arizona University, 2004). Kimberly’s research and teaching experience in disciplinary academic writing has equipped her to support native and non-native English speakers in written, oral, visual, and electronic communication. Her most recent publication is a co-authored e-book for graduate students titled Preparing to Publish, which provides information about composing academic research articles. In her spare time, she enjoys practicing yoga, gardening, and walking with her two poodles.

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